Citing a shared interest in the protection of journalists, the ministers said "light must be shed" on Mr Khashoggi's fate, and cautioned that the Saudi government was expected "to provide a complete and detailed response".
Khashoggi has written extensively for the Post about Saudi Arabia, criticizing its war in Yemen, its recent diplomatic spat with Canada and its arrest of women's rights activists after the lifting of a ban on women driving.
Meanwhile, more major players in global finance and industry are pulling out of a high-profile business conference in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia and Turkey have given differing accounts of what happened to Khashoggi after he entered the consulate.
Saudi journalist and Washington Post contributor Khashoggi vanished on October 2 after entering the consulate to obtain documents for his upcoming marriage. "We're going to get to the bottom of it and there will be severe punishment", Trump told CBS News.
A senior member of Saudi Arabia's ruling family, Prince Khaled al-Faisal, has met Turkey's President Tayyip Erdogan to discuss Khashoggi's disappearance, two sources with knowledge of the matter told Reuters without providing details of the talks.
Saudi newspapers have published aggressive front-page headlines, mirroring a statement by the kingdom warning that it won't be threatened amid concerns about the disappearance of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
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Rubio, R-Fla., said during an appearance on NBC's "Meet the Press" that if it is revealed that Saudi Arabia was involved in the death of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, then an American response needs to "swift" and "go pretty far".
Trump has praised the Saudi regime for cracking down on opponents and his son-in-law, Jared Kushner, has personal ties to crown prince Mohammed bin Salman.
Republican Marco Rubio of Florida says that includes the multi-billion dollar arms deal that President Donald Trump wants to preserve.
The fiancée of Jamal Khashoggi has said that she will only consider accepting Donald Trump's invitation to the White House if the USA president is prepared to make a "genuine contribution" to investigating the Saudi critic's disappearance.
Washington lobbying firm Harbour group which represented the Saudi government, has also terminated its $80,000 per month contract, the firm's managing director Richard Mintz said.
With pressure mounting on President Donald Trump to take action over the suspected murder, he said Saturday that the United States would be "punishing itself" if it halted weapons sales to Saudi Arabia.
He said Riyadh would "respond to any action with a bigger one", pointing out that the oil superpower "plays an effective and vital role in the world economy".
However, Senator Marco Rubio (R-Florida) says the United States must take action against Saudi Arabia - including potentially regarding arms sales - if the allegations are proven true.
On Friday, Sanders said in a post on Twitter that a reevaluation of the relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is "long overdue".