"The IDF holds Hamas responsible for everything that transpires in and emanates from the Gaza Strip and it will bear the consequences for the terror it inflicts upon Israeli civilians", the military said in a statement.
UN-OCHA's data also indicates that most of the 22,897 Palestinians injured during the protests were wounded by live ammunition shot by Israeli forces.
"The rockets that were launched against Israel. we know that the orders, incentives were given from Damascus with the clear involvement of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards' Quds Force", army spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Conricus said, referring to the Guards' foreign operations unit.
It allowed dozens of trucks of fuel paid for by Qatar into the strip, having previously banned their entry in response to the border violence.
There were no immediate Israeli reports of casualties or damages from the attacks, the largest in months; two of the projectiles landed within Gaza, the rest landed in open terrain in Israel.
Ezzeddin al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of the Hamas resistance movement, expressed its readiness to strike the occupied territories "with thousands of missiles".
Israel and Hamas have fought three wars since 2008 and much of the global community considers the Islamist movement a terrorist organisation.
Israeli medics said seven civilians were being treated for shock.
Last Friday, more than 100 Palestinians were injured by Israeli fire as Israel ramped up its military presence along the fence separating it from the blockaded Gaza Strip.More news: U.S. Navy Sends Two Warships Through the Taiwan Strait
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At least 213 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli fire in Gaza since the protests began, according to figures collated by AFP.
In late March, the situation saw a further deterioration, as Palestinians launched protest campaigns at the Gaza border, which prompted violent clashes between the protesters and the Israeli security forces.
The majority have died during protests, while smaller numbers have been killed by air strikes or tank fire.
Protesters are demanding the right of return to their homes and villages in historical Palestine from which they were driven in 1948 to make way for the new state of Israel.
They are also protesting over Israel's crippling blockade.
Also on Friday, a Palestinian man was killed by Israeli soldiers in the occupied West Bank.
Hamas officials denied a deal had been struck but confirmed to AFP that progress was being made.